Coordination ability means an ability to quickly and purposefully perform difficult spatio-temporal movement structures. Within this context, coordination abilities are understood as an externally visible manifestation of the control and regulation processes of the motor activity of the central nervous system. The complex of coordination abilities consists of a group of basic coordination abilities.
Basic coordination abilities:
Adaptive ability enables modifications of motor activity ob the basis of comparison or anticipation of new or changing conditions during performing motor activity.
Balance ability is understood as an ability to keep body or its parts in a relatively stable position.
Combinatory ability is understood as an ability to simultaneously put partial movements together into more complex movement structures.
Kinesthetic diferentiation ability means an ability to realize kinematic and dynamic features of movement.
Orientation ability is an ability to realize position of the body or its parts in space and time.
Rhytm ability enables to grasp and motorircally express rhythm which which is externally determined or contained in the motor activity itself.
Coordination abilities and affecting them are of twofold importance in sports:
The difference between technical preparation and development of coordination abilities:
Sensitive period for developing coordination is between 5 and 6 years of age (qualitative features grow: economy, fluency, precision) and around the age of 12; the highest values of agility indicators can be reached between 17 and 20 years of age.
Developing coordination abilities includes:
Specialized training negatively affects development of new movements (due to focusing on a limited number of motor skills which are the contents on selected sports specialization.
More demanding coordinatio exercises (activities requiring the activity of a bigger number of muscles, various movemets of both the body and limbs, moves in different directions and along different axles) are used for coordinatio abilities development. Mastered exercises are performed under chaning conditions because automated skills do not lead to further development of coordination abilities.
A variation can be reached by:
The wider the motor contents of a sports discipline is and the more complicated and faster locomotioin is (relocating in space) and the more difficult, faster and complex manipulation with tools or devices is (movemets of upper limbs), the bigger the requirements for coordination are.
Selecting exercises in practice: